At home Charlotte was a leader in the games, herself flowing over with fun and frolic. Her fertile imagination left her never at a loss for schemes of amusement. Naturally eager, impulsive, vehement, she had from beginning to end an extraordinary amount of energy, and in childhood her vigour must have been almost untirable. 彩票中心有人蹲点 Good God, Ancram! what do you mean? There were by this time three main centres of aviation in England, apart from Cody, alone on Laffan鈥檚 Plain. These three were Brooklands, Hendon, and the Isle of Sheppey, and of the three Brooklands was chief. Here such men as Graham Gilmour, Rippen, Leake, Wickham, and Thomas persistently experimented. Hendon had its own little group, and Shellbeach, Isle of Sheppey, held such giants of those days as C. S. Rolls and Moore Brabazon, together with Cecil Grace and Rawlinson. One or other, and sometimes all of these were deserted on the occasion of some meeting or other, but they were the points where the spade228 work was done, Brooklands taking chief place. 鈥業f you want the early history of flying in England, it is there,鈥?one of the early school remarked, pointing over toward Brooklands course. It was nearly 200 years before any attempt was made to realise his project; then, in 1843, M. Marey Monge set out to make the globes and the ship as Lana detailed them. Monge鈥檚 experiments cost him the sum of 25,000 francs 75 centimes, which he expended purely from love of scientific investigation. He chose to make his globes of brass, about .004 in thickness, and weighing 1.465 lbs. to the square yard. Having made his sphere of this metal, he lined it with two thicknesses of tissue paper, varnished it with oil, and set to work to empty it of air. This, however, he never achieved, for such metal is incapable of sustaining the pressure of the outside air, as Lana, had he had the means to carry out experiments, would have ascertained. M. Monge鈥檚 sphere could never be emptied of air sufficiently to rise from the earth; it ended in the melting-pot, ignominiously enough, and all that Monge got from his experiment was the value of the scrap metal and the satisfaction of knowing that Lana鈥檚 theory could never be translated into practice. A description of how to launch this car is subsequently given: 鈥業t becomes necessary,鈥?says the theorist, 鈥榯hat I should give directions how it may be launched upon the air, which may be done by various means; perhaps the following method may be found to answer as well as any: Fix a poll upright in the earth, about twenty feet in height, with two open collars to admit another poll to slide upwards through them; let there be a sliding platform made fast upon the top of the sliding poll; place the car with a man in it upon the platform, then raise the platform to the height of about thirty feet by means of the sliding poll, let the sliding poll and platform suddenly fall down, the car will then be left upon the air, and by its pressing the air a projectile force will instantly propel the car forward; the man in the car must then strike the active wings briskly upon the air, which will so increase the projectile force as to become superior to the force of gravitation, and if he inclines his weight a little backward, the projectile impulse will drive the car forward in an ascending direction. When the car is brought to a sufficient54 altitude to clear the tops of hills, trees, buildings, etc., the man, by sitting a little forward on his seat, will then bring the wings upon a horizontal plane, and by continuing the action of the wings he will be impelled forward in that direction. To descend, he must desist from striking the wings, and hold them on a level with their joints; the car will then gradually come down, and when it is within five or six feet of the ground the man must instantly strike the wings downwards, and sit as far back as he can; he will by this means check the projectile force, and cause the car to alight very gently with a retrograde motion. The car, when up in the air, may be made to turn to the right or to the left by forcing out one of the fins, having one about eighteen inches long placed vertically on each side of the car for that purpose, or perhaps merely by the man inclining the weight of his body to one side.鈥? I tracked down Tony Ramirez, a horticulturist in the Mexican border town of Laredo who鈥檚 beentraveling into Tarahumara country for thirty years and now grows Tarahumara heritage corn andgrinds his own pinole. 鈥淚鈥檓 a big fan of pinole. I love it,鈥?Tony told me. 鈥淚t鈥檚 an incompleteprotein, but combined with beans, it鈥檚 more nutritious than a T-bone steak. They usually mix withit with water and drink it, but I like it dry. It tastes like shredded popcorn. This first glider was tested on the Kill Devil Hill sandhills in North Carolina in the summer of 1900, and proved at any rate the correctness of the principles of the front elevator and warping wings, though its designers were puzzled by the fact that the lift was less than they expected; whilst the 鈥榙rag鈥?(as we call it), or resistance, was also considerably lower than their predictions. The 1901 machine was, in consequence, nearly doubled in area鈥攖he lifting surface being increased from 165 to 308 square feet鈥攖he first trial taking place on July 27th, 1901, again at Kill Devil Hill. It immediately appeared that something was wrong, as the machine dived straight to the ground, and it was only after the operator鈥檚 position had been moved nearly a foot back from what had been calculated as the correct position that the machine would glide鈥攁nd even then the elevator had to be used far more strongly than in the previous year鈥檚 glider. After a good deal of thought the apparent solution of the trouble was finally found.279 This consisted in the fact that with curved surfaces, while at large angles the centre of pressure moves forward as the angle decreases, when a certain limit of angle is reached it travels suddenly backwards and causes the machine to dive. The Wrights had known of this tendency from Lilienthal鈥檚 researches, but had imagined that the phenomenon would disappear if they used a fairly lightly cambered鈥攐r curved鈥攕urface with a very abrupt curve at the front. Having discovered what appeared to be the cause they surmounted the difficulty by 鈥榯russing down鈥?the camber of the wings, with the result that they at once got back to the old conditions of the previous year and could control the machine readily with small movements of the elevator, even being able to follow undulations in the ground. They still found, however, that the lift was not as great as it should have been; while the drag remained, as in the previous glider, surprisingly small. This threw doubt on previous figures as to wind resistance and pressure on curved surfaces; but at the same time confirmed (and this was a most important result) Lilienthal鈥檚 previously questioned theory that at small angles the pressure on a curved surface instead of being normal, or at right angles to, the chord is in fact inclined in front of the perpendicular. The result of this is that the pressure actually tends to draw the machine forward into the wind鈥攈ence the small amount of drag, which had puzzled Wilbur and Orville Wright. "Whitford, November 23rd. 鈥淵eah,鈥?Caballo said. 鈥淗e鈥檚 good.鈥?