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时间: 2019年12月08日 08:13

� � � Resolved, That the buying, selling, or holding of a slave, for the sake of gain, is a heinous sin and scandal, requiring the cognizance of the judicatories of the church. � It is not easy in the days of a milder administration of penal laws than a century ago the most sanguine could have dreamed of to do full justice to those who laboured, as Beccaria and his friends did, at the peril of their lives and liberties, for those very immunities which we now enjoy. We cannot conceive that it should ever have been necessary to argue against torture, or that it should have been a bold thing to do so; still less can we conceive that it should ever have had its defenders, or that men should have been contented with the sophism, that it was indeed an evil, but an evil which was necessary and inevitable. 免费久久狼人香蕉网_性爱AV_f2富二代视频app_久久一道免费观看 � � � Even the idea of public utility as the final test and standard of morality is derived from Beccaria, and the famous expression, 鈥榯he greatest happiness of the greatest number,鈥?occurs, in capital letters, in the very first page of the 鈥楧elitti e delle Pene.鈥橻30] Bentham himself fully acknowledged this. 鈥楶riestley was the first,鈥?he says, 鈥榰nless it was Beccaria, who taught my lips to pronounce this sacred truth: that the[47] greatest happiness of the greatest number is the foundation of morals and happiness.鈥?And with reference to his idea of the measurable value of different pains and pleasures, he says: 鈥業t was from Beccaria鈥檚 little treatise on Crimes and Punishments that I drew, as I well remember, the first hint of this principle, by which the precision and clearness and incontestableness of mathematical calculations are introduced for the first time into the field of morals.鈥? The whole mausoleum, the terrace on which it stands, the four minarets as tall as light-towers, are all in dead white marble, the whiteness of milk and opal, glistening with nacreous tints in the brilliant sunshine under a sky pale with heat and dust.